Adams, Bludford. E Pluribus Barnum. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press, 1997.
Adler, Patricia A. and Adler, Peter. The Glorified Self: The Aggrandizement and the Constriction of Self, Social Psychology Quarterly, vol. 52, no. 4 (December 1989), 299-310.
Armstrong, Nancy. Modernisms Iconophobia and What it Did to Gender, Modernism/Modernity vol. 5 no. 2, 1998, 47-75.
Baker, Thomas N. Sentiment and Celebrity: Nathaniel Parker Willis and the Trials of Literary Fame. New York: Oxford University Press, 1998.
Barney, Tim. Celebrity, Spectacle, and the Conspiracy Culture of Election 2000, American Behavioral Scientist, vol. 44, no. 2 (August 2001).
Barnum, Phineas Taylor. The Life of PT Barnum, Written by Himself. Intro by Terence WhalenUrbana: University of Illinois Press, 2000.
Basil, Michael D. Identification as a Mediator of Celebrity Effects, Journal of Broadcasting and Electronic Media, vol. 40, 1996, 478-95.
Baty, S. Paige. American Monroe: The Making of a Body Politic. Berkeley: University of California Press, 1995.
Blake, David Haven. Campbell McGrath and the Spectacle Society, Michigan Quarterly Review, vol. 41, no. 2 (Spring 2000), 249-72.
Blake, David Haven. Public Dreams: Berryman, Clebrity, and the Culture of Confession, American Literary History vol. 13, no. 4 (Winter 2001), 716-36.
Blonsky, Marshall. American Mythologies. New York: Oxford University Press, 1992.
Boorstin, Daniel. The Image: A Guide to Pseudo Events in America. New York: Vintage, 1992 (1962)..
Braudy, Leo. The Frenzy of Renown: Fame and Its History. New York: Oxford University Press, 1997 (1986).
Briggs, Peter M. 1991. Laurence Sterne and Literary Celebrity in 1760. The Age of Johnson vol. 4, 1991, 251-73.
Burns, Sarah. Performing the Self, in Inventing the Modern Artist: Art and Culture in Gilded Age America. New Haven: Yale University Press, 1999, 221-46.
Cawelti, John G. The Writer as a Celebrity: Some Aspects of American Literature as Popular Culture. Studies in American Fiction, vol. 5, 1977, 161-74.
Chancey, Jill R. Diana Doubled: The Fairytale Princess and the Photographer, NWSA Journal vol. 11, no. 2, 1999, 163-75.
Cherches, Peter. Star Course: Popular Lectures and the Marketing of Celebrity In Nineteenth-Century America. NYU Dissertation, May 1997.
Coombe, Rosemary J. The Celebrity Image and Cultural Identity: Publicity Rights and the Subaltern Politics of Gender. Discourse no. 14 (Spring 1992), 59-88.
Cowen, Tyler. What Price Fame? Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 2000.
Curnutt, Kirk. Inside and Outside: Gertrude Stein on Identity, Celebrity and Authenticity. Journal of Modern Literature, vol. 23 no 2 (Winter 1999/2000), 291-308.
DeAngelis, Midhael. Gay Fandom and Crossover Stardom: James Dean, Mel Gibson, and Keanu Reeves. Durham: Duke University Press, 2002.
Debord, Guy. The Society of the Spectacle. Trans. Donal Nicholson-Smith. New York: Zone Books, 1995 (1967).
Dixon, Wheeler Winston. Disaster and Memory: Celebrity Culture and the Rise of Hollywood Cinema. New York: Columbia University Press, 1999.
Dugdale, Timothy. The Fan and (Auto)Biography: Writing the Self in the Stars. Journal of Mundane Behavior, vol. 1, no. 2 (June). http://www.mundanebehavior.org/
Duvall, John N. Baseball as Aesthetic Ideology: Cold War History, Race, and DeLillos Pafko at the Wall Modern Fiction Studies, vol. 41, no. 2, 1995
Dyer, Richard. Heavenly Bodies: Film Stars and Society. New York: St. Martins Press 1987.
Dyer, Richard. Stars. Revised edition. London: British Film Institute,1998.
Einerson, Martha J. Fame, Fortune, and Failure: Young Girls Moral Language Surrounding Popular Culture, Youth & Society no. 30, 1998, 241-57.
Ferris, Kerry O. Through a Glass, Darkly: The Dynamics of Fan-Celebrity Encounters. Symbolic Interaction, no. 24, 2001, 25-47.
Fisher, Philip Appearing and Disappearing in Public: Social Space in late Nineteenth Century Literature and Culture. Harvard Studies no. 13, 1986, ed. Sacvan Bercovitch.
Fiske, John. Madonna. Reading the Popular. Boston: Unwin Hyman, 1989, 95-113.
Flanagan, Mary. Mobile Identities, Digital Star, and Post Cinematic Selves, Wide Angle vol. 21 no. 1, 1999, 77-93.
Flanzbaum, Hilene. Surviving the Marketplace: Robert Lowell and the Sixties, The New England Quarterly vol. 48, no. 1 (March 1995), 44-57.
Flatley, Jonathan. Warhol Gives Good Face: Publicity and the Politics of Prosopopoeia. In Pop Out: Queer Warhol. Jennifer Doyle, Jonathan Flatley, and José Esteban Muñoz, eds. Durham: Duke University Press, 1996, 101-31.
Gabler, Neal. Life The Movie: How Entertainment Conquered Reality. New York: Vintag, 2000 (1998).
Gabler, Neal. Winchell: Gossip, Power, and the Culture of Celebrity. New York: Vintage, 1995.
Gamson, Joshua. Claims to Fame: Celebrity in Contemporary America. Berkeley: University of California Press, 1994.
Gamson, Joshua. Jessica Hahn, Media Whore: Sex Scandals and Female Publicity. Critical Studies in Media Communication vol. 18, no. 2 (June 2001).
Giles, David. Illusions of Immortality: A Psychology of Fame and Celebrity. New York: St. Martins, 2000.
Glass, Loren. Nobodys Renown: Plagiarism and Publicity in the Career of Jack London. American Literature vol. 71 no. 3 (September 1999), 529-49.
Glass, Loren. Trademark Twain. American Literary History vol. 13, no. 4 (Winter 2001), 671-93.
Gledhill, Christine, ed. Stardom: Industry of Desire. London: Routledge, 1991.
Globe, Mark. Cameo Appearances; or, When Gertrude Stein Checks into Grand Hotel. MLQ: Modern Language Quarterly vol. 62, no. 2 (June 2001), 117-63.
Harris, Neil. Humbug: The Art of P.T. Barnum. Boston, MA: Little Brown and Co. 1973.
Homes, Susan and Redmond, Sean, eds. Celebrity Culture. London: Routledge, 2005.
Homes, Susan and Redmond, Sean, eds. Fame Culture: A Reader. London: Sage, 2005.
Horkheimer, Max and Theodor W. Adorno. The Culture Industry: Enlightenment as Mass Deception. Dialectic of Enlightenment. Trans. John Cumming. New York: Herder and Herder, 1972 (1944).
Johnson, Ronna. Youre Putting Me On: Jack Kerouac and the Postmodern Emergence. College Literature vol. 27, no. 1 (Winter 2000).
Kaplan, Amy. Edith Whartons Profession of Authorship. ELH, vol. 53, no. 2 (Summer 1986), 433-57.
Kasson, Joy. Buffalo Bills Wild West: Celebrity, Memory, and Popular History. New York: Hill and Wang, 2000.
Landay, Lori. Millions Love Lucy: Commodification and the Lucy Phenomenon. NWSA Journal vol. 11, no. 2 (Summer 1999), 25-47.
Lang, Gladys and Lang, Karl. Recognition and Renown: the Survival of Artistic Reputation. American Journal of Sociology, vol. 94, no. 1 (July 1998), 79-109.
Leets, Laura, Gavin de Becker, and Howard Giles. Fans: Exploring Expressed Motivations for Contacting Celebrities. Journal of Language and Social Psychology, vol. 14, nos. 1-2 (March 1995), 102-23.
Leff, Leonard. Hemingway and His Conspirators: Hollywood, Scribners, and the Making of American Celebrity Culture. Lanham, Maryland: Rowman & Littlefield Publishers, Inc. 1997.
Look, Hugh. 1999. The Author as Star. Publishing Research Quarterly vol. 15, 1999, 12-29.
Lowenthal, Leo. The Triumph of Mass Idols (1944). Literature, Popular Culture, and Society. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall, 1961.
Mailer, Norman. Advertisement for Myself. Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 1992.
Margolis, Stacey. The Public Life: The Discourse of Privacy in the Age of Celebrity. Arizona Quarterly, vol. 51, vol. 2 (Summer 1995), 81-101.
Marshall, P. David. Celebrity and Power: Fame in Contemporary Culture. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press, 1997.
Marshall, P. David. The Celebrity Legacy of the Beatles. The Beatles: Popular Music and Society. MacMillan Press, Ltd, 2000, 163-75.
Mattick, Paul. The Andy Warhol of Philosophy and the Philosophy of Andy Warhol. Critical Inquiry vol. 24, no. 2 (Summer 1998), 965-87.
McGrath, Campell. The Bob Hope Poem. Spring Comes to Chicago. Hopewell, NJ: Ecco, 1996.
Moran, Joe. Star Authors: Literary Celebrity in America. London: Pluto Press, 2000.
Newbury, Michael. 1994. Eaten Alive: Slavery and Celebrity in Antebellum America. ELH, vol. 61 no. 1, 1994, 159-87.
Norton, Anne. Republic of Signs: Liberal Theory and American Popular Culture. Chicago: Chicago University Press, 1993.
ODonnell, Heather. Stumbling on Henry James. The Henry James Review, vol. 21, no. 3, 2000, 234-41.
Pattanaik, Dipti R. The Holy Refusal: A Vedantic Interpretation of J.D. Salingers Silence. MELUS, vol. 23, no. 2 (Summer 1998), 113-27.
Raeburn, John. Ernest Hemingway: The Public Writer as Popular Culture. Journal of Popular Culture, vol. 8 no. 1, 1974, 91-98.
Rein, Irving J., Philip Kotler, and Martin Stoller. High Visibility: The Making and Marketing of Professionals into Celebrities. Chicago: NTC Business Books, 1997.
Robbins, Bruce W. Celeb-Reliance: Intellectual, Celebrity, and Upward Mobility. Post Modern Culture, vol. 9, no. 2, 1999.
Rubey, Dan. Voguing at the Carnival: Desire and Pleasure on MTV. South Atlantic Quarterly vol. 90, no. 4 (Spring 1997), 871-906.
Schickel, Richar. Intimate Strangers: The Culture of Celebrity. Garden City, NY: Doubleday & Co., Inc. 1985
Schmid, David. Natural Born Celebrities: Serial Killers in American Culture. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 2005.
Schmitt, Raymons L. and Leonard, Wilbert M. Immortalizing the Self Through Sport. American Journal of Sociology, vol. 91, no. 5 (March 1986), 1088-1111.
Sexton, Anne. The Freak Show (1973). No Evil Star: Selected Essays, Interviews, and Prose. Ed. Steven E. Colburn. Ann Arbor: The University of Michigan Press, 1985, 33-38.
Smart, Judith. The Evangelist as Star: The Billy Graham Crusade in Australia, 1959. Journal of Popular Culture, vol. 33, no. 1, 1999, 165-75.
Stacey, Jackie. Star Gazing: Hollywood Cinema and Female Spectatorship. New York: Routledge,1994.
Till, Brian and Shimp, Terrence. Endorsers in Advertising The Case of Negative Celebrity Information. Journal of Advertising, vol. 27, no. 1, 1998, 67-83.
Tomc, Sandra. An Idle Industry: Nathaniel Parker Willis and the Workings of Literary Leisure. American Quarterly, vol. 49, no. 4, 1997, 780-805.
Troy, Gil. JFK: Celebrity-In-Chief or Commander-In-Chief? Reviews in American History, vol. 26, no. 3, 1998, 630-36.
Walsh, Chris. Stardom Is Born: The Religion and Economy of Publicity in Henry James The Bostonians. American Literary Realism, (Spring 1997), 15-25.
Wicke, Jennifer. Celebrity Material: Materialist Feminism and the Culture of Celebrity. In Feminism, the Public and the Private. Joan B. Landes, ed. New York: Oxford University Press, 1998.
Williamson, Catherine. Swimming Pools, Movie Stars: The Celebrity Body in the Post-War Marketplace, Camera Obscura: Feminism, Culture and Media Studies, no. 38, 1996.
Wilson, Cintra. A Massive Swelling: Celebrity Re-Examined as a Grotesque, Crippling Disease and Other Cultural Revelations. New York: Viking, 2000.
Zengotita, Thomas de. Celebrity, Irony, and You. The Nation, 2 December 1996, 15-18.